Honey's bacteria resistance properties aren't completely understood, but it is known that there are antimicrobial enzymes in certain types of honey as well as hydrogen peroxide (which can kill bacteria and viruses). There is also evidence that honey may inhibit quorem sensing, which is a mechanism by which bacteria can coordinate certain behaviors.
Furthermore, honey has a very high osmolarity -- it's is formed when bees bring sugar-rich nectar to a honeycomb, in which it is then dehydrated until it is less than 20% water. This can make it difficult for bacteria, which may rely on a certain level of water content in the environment, to survive.
An additional factor is the pH of honey, which is acidic and may also prevent bacterial growth. Though you would never notice it from the taste.
- Honey has a higher sugar to water ratio than the inside of bacteria so the water in bacteria will leak out through the cell wall thus drying out the bacteria.
- Honey generate H2O2 when diluted, and hydrogen peroxide (H202) is a bleaching agent
- Honey is acidic enough to inhibit some bacterial growth
- Some honey has antibacterial properties that aren't due to H202, compounds like methylglyoxal found in manuka honey contribute to its antibacterial properties but aren't the only source.
It also has an low water content, this, along with it's high acidity, makes it inhospitable to bacteria.
My oldest daughter was invited to celebrate the quinceanera of her very best friend. This means that she has gotten to be part of her helper group. So far she has been so mature. I am really pleased with how she is handling this and it makes me proud to be her mother.
It wasn't easy getting to this point though.
For one the vast majority of Americans don't celebrate a quinceanera. But is isn't much different than any other coming of age event. For most of human history you were considered an adult as soon as you went through puberty. So for most of history you were an adult by age 12-16 depending on specific cultural trends and biology thus making teenagers adults.
This belief is seen in various cultural holdovers and traditions such as "Sweet 16", "Quinceanera", "Bar Mitzvah", "Catholic Confirmation", and many other coming of age rituals.
Teenagers being separate from adults and considered to still be children or to be transitional is something that really did not start in modern cultures until the late 1800s and did not solidify as part of culture until after WWI in the 1920s and 1930s.
All of this had already started to diminish in my teen years, and probably in all honesty years before, I was just too young to notice. For me it was really prom that acted as a bit of a coming of age.
Today that is also less of a thing. To some it still serves as a "milestone" type occasion like Confirmation, but it is more something to be documented to show movement towards adulthood. We learned a lot about the quinceanera celebration and how she needed to act.
These days prom is less revered as something that is really a big deal, and more something that needs to be done to adhere to tradition. Typically a teenager close to prom could really care less about the event themselves, but is roped into the hype by friends and family who wish to relive their youth, or to re-write it.
That is why I am so pleased with my daughter's participation in the preparations, and her interest in the religious aspect of the celebration.
When they set out to get invitations, my daughter suggested ones that showed the religious aspect of the quinceanera instead of the more secular options. This was a really rewarding moment for me as well. As an Italian-America Catholic mother it is an immensely emotional moment when your child embraces the values that you have tried to instow upon them.
I think that she will do alright.
Photo by Christopher Michel
I am all for FSAs, they are, contrary to what others say, a good deal. Here is why.
Money you put into your FSA is taken out before you pay taxes on it. Most people are taxed somewhere around a third of their income so, if you can use the money in the FSA, it's a good deal.
- If you're single, young & healthy, it might seem ridiculous because you don't actually spend much money on predictable healthcare expenses. however...
- If you have kids, there's a number of scheduled checkups, immunizations and whatnot.
- If you're older, you may have medical problems that require regular visits to the doctor & prescription drugs that you've been taking daily for years.
- If you have health problems, you'll also have a bunch of medication you need to take.
It can also be good if you have some predictable expenses. If you have poor eyesight, you might want to plan ahead to get a new pair of glasses or contacts. A friend planned ahead for her laser eye surgery, effectively getting a 25% discount on the procedure by not paying taxes on the money.
You can put tax-free contributions into the account to spend on healthcare costs. Depending on your tax rate this can be significant savings. The problem is that if you don't use the money for the year, you lose it. After the ACA, you can now carry over $500.
A boy that my daughter baby sits for was confused. He saw our Italian flag in the living room and thought that it was the flag of Mexico. He is Hispanic.
My daughter tried to explain to him the difference. In all fairness they do seem much the same to the untrained eye.
Tri-color flags, or flags with three differently colored stripes, are incredibly popular, and lots of countries have very similar flags. In Mexico's case, the colors represent the banners of the army that liberated it from Spain. In Italy's case, the flag colors represent the official colors of several different Italian kingdoms that joined together to form modern Italy.
So why are they so similar? Coincidence. Flags in the past were primarily for use in battle or to identify naval vessels (often during battle). A simple design with bright primary colors was quick and easy to identify. Given the limited design and limited number of dyes available, replication was bound to happen. Romania and Chad, for example have the exact same flag. Awkward!
Fun fact: the crest on the Mexican flag shows an eagle on a nopal cactus eating a snake, which was the sign of prophecy to the Mexica people were given to indicate their homeland.
Well, I wasn't sure I appreciated it until it wasn't there any more. My steering, my sister asked me to drive her to the hospital in her car. My husband was going to them pick me up from work.
I was fine with this and it was for a planned procedure, nothing drastic, and everything thank the Lord went well.
But I also learned something.
I like my steering numb.
I wasn't sure why but her car felt all off. It felt like I encountered every bump in the road, it shook my fingers. It was strange. On the way home with my husband he explained it to me.
Numb steering is where you don't get feedback through the steering wheel from the tires and suspension. Steering systems where the wheel and suspension are directly connected, you'll get a lot of vibration and pull in the wheel, which an experienced driver can interpret road conditions, traction, handling characteristics, and attitude of the car.
For normal daily driving, communicative steering may be a nuisance.
So when you are driving, and you hit a pothole, you can feel the jolt of the suspension coming through the tires and into the steering wheel. Ad that's normal. But there are some older cars that you really can't feel that sensation at all. That is what it means when the car is "numb".
Communicative is better just because you actually know what the car is feeling. Without it, you could be riding on different surfaces or riding off the road really and the steering wheel would react in the same fashion as if you were on new asphalt.
My sister was always the sportier out of the two of us.
I don't know what it is, but I really like records of CDs and I am thrilled to see them making a comeback. Unfortunately, a lot of people don't know how they work. The CD is almost legacy so I guess I shouldn't fault them.
The first thing you need to understand is that a magnet moving inside a coil of wire generates (induces) an electric current proportional to the movement of the magnet. That's the electrical bit.
Now, if you've got that, let's look at the mechanicals. If you look at the groove of a vinyl record under high magnification, you'll see that it's very rough. The bumps and dips in the groove cause the needle to move up and down (ignore stereo for a moment) as the record rotates under it. That needle is attached to a magnet, and surrounded by a coil of wire. As the needle+magnet moves, currents are generated in the coil.
Those currents are a representation of the sound encoded in the groove. Once they're amplified sufficiently and sent to a loudspeaker, you have sound.
The loudspeaker, works in an almost perfect analog to the record. Each driver has a coil sitting in a magnetic field generated by a permanent magnet. As current is sent through the coil, the cone of the driver moves in and out proportionally to the size of the current.
Advanced topic, if you're 6: Stereo is generated by essentially having the needle move in two planes. Stereo separation was not very good compared to modern digital recordings. You can think of it as one channel being encoded in the "up and down" movements, and one in the "back and forth" movements, and there are two coils in a stereo cartridge that generate signals for the two channels. It's actually a lot harder figuring out how to encode that into a single groove than to understand how reproduction works.